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In our increasingly interconnected digital world, data communication is the vital ingredient that connects us. Understanding how various modes of data transmission work is vital for designing reliable and efficient networks. From the one-way simplicity of simplex communications to the bidirectional nature of full-duplex communication different methods affect how data is transferred and received.

Hardware in a data communication circuit employs a variety of techniques to send data effectively. These include desmultiplexing and multiplexing. These are processes that combine or separate signals, and then transmit them as one composite signal. This maximizes bandwidth and reduces costs. Error detecting codes and signal amplifiers also reduce the possibility of data corruption caused by electric disturbances, or even momentary electrical noises that may change bits of information as they travel over the communication channel.

Data communications also come with a set of rules (protocol) that are followed by the computer systems that transmit and receive data. These rules help ensure that the message is understood and accepted without error.

The sender could be a computer or another device that creates the message and then transmits it. It could be in the form text, numbers, pictures or even videos. The receiver is the computer or device that receives the message which could be the same as the sender or different. The transmission medium is the physical way from the sender to the receiver, which can be a wired or wireless medium such as twisted pair wire or fiber optic cable or wireless like lasers, microwaves, or radio waves.